Emperor Nero did not at first realize how serious the situation is. He was ordered to quell the uprising with the help of the Legion stationed in Syria. Roman troops were almost completely destroyed. Jew practically regained its independence. Nero needed an experienced military leader, but a candidate was not easy.
In the last years of his life, Nero was mainly concerned with art and singing, thus destroying the personal environment of everyone who could potentially become a conspirator. The man who could lead the troops, among the courtiers of Nero were not. And then he remembered Vespasian.
Giulio Romano “the Triumph of Titus and Vespasian”. The plot of the painting lay a lush triumphal procession arranged in honor of the victory over Judah.
Vespasian was in control of a powerful army in ‘ 67 came to Judea. Despite its age, the behavior of Vespasian during the hostilities was perfect: always went ahead of the troops, he chose the place for the camp, never indulged in idleness or luxury, ate and dressed like a common soldier, often do engage in. At the siege of Jotapata by way of he was injured by a stone in the knee, and his shield pierced with several arrows.
It has always been his son Titus, to whom Vespasian gave the most complex tasks. The soldiers saw in Vespasian reflection of the ancient idea of a General. It is unlikely that the stories of personal bravery were exaggerated.
About the war, we know from the writings of Josephus, one of the leaders of the rebellious Jews, who was captured by Vespasian, and then wrote the book “the Jewish war”.
The conquest of Judea took a year and a half. The independent was left was Jerusalem, and Vespasian was preparing for his assault. But then out of Rome came the news that completely changed his plans. Nero died.
The Emperor tired of the nearest environment of terror and crazy antics. In the conspiracy took part in almost all prominent courtiers. Nero realized that he had nowhere to run, and at his Villa, rushed to the sword, speaking the words: “What an artist dies!” Children of Nero was not. Dynasty, founded by Augustus, was interrupted. Began the struggle for power.
Power in Rome was at the mercy of the legions. In just one year emperors were declared three of the commander, Galba, Otho, and Vitellius. The gifts of the legionaries were ready to elect anyone. The battle was right in town, across Italy bossed gangs of marauders, the emperors could not settle down in the Palace, as it was storming the next contender for power.
All this time Vespasian was waiting. He didn’t want to risk soldiers to take a heavily fortified Jerusalem. The commander had made peace with the Parthian Kingdom, not to leave at the rear of a powerful enemy, and secured the friendship on the part of the governors of the neighboring provinces.
Only on 1 July, 69 Vespasian proclaimed himself the new Emperor. He swore to the nine Eastern legions – more than 60 000 soldiers. The way to Rome was open. Moreover, the city was waiting for the man who can restore order. In the summer of 70, Vespasian arrived in Italy without a fight took the Eternal city.
Greed as a politician
Empire Vespasian got in a sad state. The city was destroyed. The center of Rome housed the Palace of Nero, was in ruins and burned. The Treasury was empty, across the country went wild marauders of former legionaries.
The situation demanded drastic measures, and Vespasian met expectations. It is massively fired legionaries participated in the street battles and looting, moreover, sent them to live on the far borders of the Empire. The suppression of crime contributed to his own legions from the East, completely personally loyal Vespasian.
Then the Emperor took up Economics. The state budget was in need of 40 billion sesterces. And the money is needed to get at any price. Most funds brought the end of the Jewish war. In 71 Titus took Jerusalem and destroyed the temple, bringing to the Treasury of great value.
For the Jews, the dark times came. Throughout the war, according to ancient writers, were killed, 600,000 people. Palestine was divided into plots and distributed or sold to new settlers. The temple is a symbol of Judea was wiped off the face of the earth, and in its place erected the sanctuary of Jupiter Capitoline.
The Governor of Judea appointed commonly Praetorian legate of the Emperor. All Jews in the Empire have levied a special tax. The money the Emperor did get in any way.
Coin depicting Vespasian
But even funds from the conquered Jews was not enough to replenish the Treasury. And Vespasian almost created an analog of the Ministry of Finance. Earlier the state Treasury was separated from the Emperor, but now they were United.
The Emperor had imposed new taxes in the province and governors. Taxes for the provinces was doubled. Regions who did not like the new order were brought to the obedience of the legions.
While Vespasian in every way makes life easier for large landowners. He returned to many of the senators and riders their land, confiscated by Nero.
The Emperor’s logic was simple: large landowners actively participated in the trade that brought by huge sums of taxes to the Treasury.
Following this same logic, Vespasian was active in developing infrastructure. The center of Rome fell to him almost destroyed. The Emperor was allowed to occupy and build up the empty lots, if not made them the rightful owners. He personally set an example by taking part in the clearing of the destroyed Capitol.
At extremely lean with respect to the means of Vespasian throughout Italy settled in the city and strengthen the road. Strategic Flamineo the road was dug whole mountains for the rectification of the relief.
In Rome, the Emperor had glorified his name by two great monuments. The first was the temple of Peace – a symbol that the era of civil wars was over. The second is the huge amphitheater, which we call the Coliseum, it is still the symbol of Rome. His Emperor was built on the site of Nero’s Palace as a symbol of the fact that he returned to the city by the Romans.
The Temple Of Peace
The most exotic method of earnings, which was invented by Vespasian, became a legend. In Rome from the earliest times collected urine: it is used for the treatment of skin and bleaching of fabrics.